Sunday, October 21, 2007

Forms of Communication

# One way Communication and Two Communication
# Verbal Communication and Non Verbal Communication.
# Formal Communication and Informal Communication.
# Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Communication
# Group Communication
# Public Communication
# Mass Communication

# One way Communication and Two Communication- One way communication is characterized by absence of feed back from the receiver to the sender. Here role of the sender and the receiver are isolated not interdependent. The sender conveys the message and the receiver has to make out meaning of his own and there is no scope for check back.
Two ways communication involves active feed back from the receiver to the sender to ensure that the receiver has understood the same message which the sender intended to convey, this form of communication being more interactive and interpersonal, allows better mutual understanding.

# Verbal Communication and Non Verbal Communication.
Verbal communication requires the use of words, vocabulary, numbers and symbols and is organized in sentences using language. Mastering linguistic skill is not reserved for the selected few but is a skill that each and every one should develop to improve relationships and interactions.
Everyone's brain is forever having thoughts and they are primarily with words. Words spoken, listened to or written affect your life as well as others. They have the power to create emotions and move people to take action. When verbal communication is delivered accurately and clearly, you activate the mind and encourage creativity.
You create your reality with your senses, the eyes, ears and feelings and words and symbols are used to create the meanings. This is why you are encouraged to read and watch informative materials, listen to motivational audio programs and attend classes or seminars that relate to your line of work or objectives. Positive and uplifting spoken or written messages motivate and inspire.
You can do the same to inspire others. Motivation comes from within each individual but you can become the source and when your are able to affect their thinking, you can help them improve their lives.

How to improve verbal communication to help yourself and others.
Using positive words to challenge limiting beliefs.
Verbal communication includes phrasing your words clearly and positively. Your words and the explanations you give affect thoughts and determine emotions.
Verbal communication that includes questions helps you challenge beliefs. According to Michael Hall, a belief is a thought to which you have said "yes", and you have affirmed by saying, "I believe this". It takes questions worded specifically before you can fully agree.
Your customers, children or partners agreeing and saying "Yes" to your suggestions and opinions indicate that you were able to influence and change their beliefs and thoughts from your spoken or written persuasion.
Telling or reading a story.
One of the ways to let others understand your message is by telling a story, reading a quote or telling a joke. Verbal communication through stories carries power to induce the person to relate to what you are saying or suggesting. A joke usually helps people relax more and is opened to listen to you.
The way you deliver the story can affect the thinking, emotions and behavior of the listeners. He is able to imagine the experience and will reproduce a response. A story narrated with eloquent can give hope to people who are in dire need for encouragement.
Asking the right questions.
Questioning yourself or others with precise words allow for answers. It make a difference if you were to ask a "why" or a "how" question. The former gives you a lot of reasons, understandings and explanations while the later set your brain thinking for a solution, useful information and a strategy.
By asking questions and wording them specifically, you will invite a positive debate and interaction that will benefit all involved. You become a better listener and entice others to do the same. Unnecessary arguments are reduced when you are able to express yourself with great command of your language skills.
Think and prepare before you speak.
Whether you are going to speak in public, talk to your boss, spouse or children, you have to think before you utter those words. Verbal abuse happens when you express yourself without thinking and instead allow your emotions to take over.
You have to project your thoughts first in your mind or in writing before speaking them out. Doing this will enable you to prepare yourself with any objections that may arise. Thinking, preparing and imagining the most desirable outcome in your mind allow you to practice your presentation and getting them right.
Reduce your usage of verbal pauses.
Have you ever listened to how you speak and render your conversations? If you haven't and are unaware, request for someone to do so. How many times did you stop your sentences and added an "ah", "um" or "well"? You can also record your verbal communication and listen back to your style of speaking.
Too many of these will irritate your listeners or is perceived as uneasiness or uncertainty in what you are saying. In order to reduce the unnecessary verbal cues, listen to yourself and become aware of it. Then when you realize it coming, condition yourself to just a silent pause.
Avoid careless language.
Use your phrases with care. Talk and write in ways that allow for accurate description of your experience, thoughts or ideas. Don't expect people to assume and guess what you are trying to say.
Speak with specificity by avoiding words like always, never, every, or all. When you say to your spouse that he is always late when in fact he was late only twice, you are attracting an argument.

Non-verbal Communication

Nonverbal communication is the act of imparting or interchanging thoughts, posture, opinions or information without the use of words, using gestures, sign language, facial expressions and body language instead. Much of the “emotional meaning” we take from other people is found in the person’s facial expressions and tone of voice, comparatively little is taken from what the person actually says

# Formal Communication and Informal Communication.

Formal communication can be defined as, “A presentation or written piece that strictly adheres to rules, conventions, and ceremony, and is free of colloquial expressions.”
It connotes the flow of the data by the lines of authority formally acknowledged in the enterprise and its members are likely to communicate with one another strictly as per channels constituted in the structure. Thus, it is a purposeful effort to influence the flow of communication so as to guarantee that information flows effortlessly, precisely and timely.
It emphasizes the essence of formal channel of communication. The different forms of formal communication include; departmental meetings, conferences, telephone calls, company news bulletins, special interviews and special purpose publications.
The main advantage of formal communication is that the official channels facilitate the habitual and identical information to communicate without claiming much of managerial attention. Essentially, executives and mangers may devote most of their precious time on matters of utmost significance.
But at the same time, the weakness of formal communication should not go unaccounted. Communication through channel of command greatly obstructs free and uninterrupted flow of communication. It is, generally, time consuming, cumbersome and leads to a good deal of distortion.

# Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Communication

Definition of Interpersonal Communication
One way of defining interpersonal communication is to compare it to other forms of communication. In so doing, we would examine how many people are involved, how physically close they are to one another, how many sensory channels are used, and the feedback provided. Interpersonal communication differs from other forms of communication in that there are few participants involved, the interactants are in close physical proximity to each other, there are many sensory channels used, and feedback is immediate. An important point to note about the contextual definition is that it does not take into account the relationship between the interactants.

We have many different relationships with people. Some researchers say that our definition of interpersonal communication must account for these differences. These researchers say that interacting with a sales clerk in a store is different than the relationship we have with our friends and family members. Thus, some researchers have proposed an alternative way of defining interpersonal communication. This is called the developmental view. From this view, interpersonal communication is defined as communication that occurs between people who have known each other for some time. Importantly, these people view each other as unique individuals, not as people who are simply acting out social situations

Four Principles of Interpersonal Communication

These principles underlie the workings in real life of interpersonal communication. They are basic to communication. We can't ignore them
Interpersonal communication is inescapable
We can't not communicate. The very attempt not to communicate communicates something. Through not only words, but through tone of voice and through gesture, posture, facial expression, etc., we constantly communicate to those around us. Through these channels, we constantly receive communication from others. Even when you sleep, you communicate. Remember a basic principle of communication in general: people are not mind readers. Another way to put this is: people judge you by your behavior, not your intent.
Interpersonal communication is irreversible
You can't really take back something once it has been said. The effect must inevitably remain. Despite the instructions from a judge to a jury to "disregard that last statement the witness made," the lawyer knows that it can't help but make an impression on the jury. A Russian proverb says, "Once a word goes out of your mouth, you can never swallow it again."
Interpersonal communication is complicated

No form of communication is simple. Because of the number of variables involved, even simple requests are extremely complex. Theorists note that whenever we communicate there are really at least six "people" involved: 1) who you think you are; 2) who you think the other person is; 30 who you think the other person thinks you are; 4) who the other person thinks /she is; 5) who the other person thinks you are; and 6) who the other person thinks you think s/he is.

We don't actually swap ideas, we swap symbols that stand for ideas. This also complicates communication. Words (symbols) do not have inherent meaning; we simply use them in certain ways, and no two people use the same word exactly alike.
Osmo Wiio gives us some communication maxims similar to Murphy's law (Osmo Wiio, Wiio's Laws--and Some Others (Espoo, Finland: Welin-Goos, 1978):
If communication can fail, it will.
If a message can be understood in different ways, it will be understood in just that way which does the most harm.
There is always somebody who knows better than you what you meant by your message.
The more communication there is, the more difficult it is for communication to succeed.
Interpersonal communication is contextual
In other words, communication does not happen in isolation. There is:
Psychological context, which is who you are and what you bring to the interaction. Your needs, desires, values, personality, etc., all form the psychological context. ("You" here refers to both participants in the interaction.)
Relational context, which concerns your reactions to the other person--the "mix."
Situational context deals with the psycho-social "where" you are communicating. An interaction that takes place in a classroom will be very different from one that takes place in a bar.
Environmental context deals with the physical "where" you are communicating. Furniture, location, noise level, temperature, season, time of day, all are examples of factors in the environmental context.
Cultural context includes all the learned behaviors and rules that affect the interaction. If you come from a culture (foreign or within your own country) where it is considered rude to make long, direct eye contact, you will out of politeness avoid eye contact. If the other person comes from a culture where long, direct eye contact signals trustworthiness, then we have in the cultural context a basis for misunderstanding.

Intrapersonal communication is language use or thought internal to the communicator. Intrapersonal communication is the active internal involvement of the individual in symbolic processing of messages. The individual becomes his or her own sender and receiver, providing feedback to him or herself in an ongoing internal process. It can be useful to envision intrapersonal communication occurring in the mind of the individual in a model which contains a sender, receiver, and feedback loop.
Although successful communication is generally defined as being between two or more individuals, issues concerning the useful nature of communicating with oneself and problems concerning communication with non-sentient entities such as computers have made some argue that this definition is too narrow.
In Communication: The Social Matrix of Psychiatry, Jurgen Ruesch and Gregory Bateson argue that intrapersonal communication is indeed a special case of interpersonal communication, as "dialogue is the foundation for all discourse."
Intrapersonal communication can encompass:
Nocturnal dreaming, including and especially lucid dreaming
Speaking aloud (talking to oneself), reading aloud, repeating what one hears; the additional activities of speaking and hearing (in the third case of hearing again) what one thinks, reads or hears may increase concentration and retention. This is considered normal, and the extent to which it occurs varies from person to person. The time when there should be concern is when talking to oneself occurs outside of socially acceptable situations.[1]
Writing (by hand, or with a wordprocessor, etc.) one's thoughts or observations: the additional activities, on top of thinking, of writing and reading back may again increase self-understanding ("How do I know what I mean until I see what I say?") and concentration. It aids ordering one's thoughts; in addition it produces a record that can be used later again. Copying text to aid memorizing also falls in this category.
Making gestures while thinking: the additional activity, on top of thinking, of body motions, may again increase concentration, assist in problem solving, and assist memory.
Sense-making (see Karl Weick) e.g. interpreting maps, texts, signs, and symbols
Interpreting non-verbal communication (see Albert Mehrabian) e.g. gestures, eye contact
Communication between body parts; e.g. "My stomach is telling me it's time for lunch."
Group Communication
The first important research study of small group communication was performed by social psychologist Robert Bales and published in a series of books and articles in the early and mid 1950s (e.g., Bales, 1950, 1953; Bales & Strodtbbeck, 1951). This research entailed the content analysis of discussions within groups making decisions about "human relations" problems (i.e., vignettes about relationship difficulties within families or organizations). Bales made a series of important discoveries. First, group discussion tends to shift back and forth relatively quickly between the discussion of the group task and discussion relevant to the relationship among the members. He believed that this shifting was the product of an implicit attempt to balance the demands of task completion and group cohesion, under the presumption that conflict generated during task discussion causes stress among members, which must released through positive relational talk. Second, task group discussion shifts from an emphasis on opinion exchange, through an attentiveness to values underlying the decision, to making the decision. This implication that group discussion goes through the same series of stages in the same order for any decision-making group is known as the linear phase model. Third, the most talkative member of a group tends to make between 40 and 50 percent of the comments and the second most talkative member between 25 and 30, no matter the size of the group. As a consequence, large groups tend to be dominated by one or two members to the detriment of the others.
The most influential of these discoveries has been the latter; the linear phase model. The idea that all groups performing a given type of task go through the same series of stages in the same order was replicated through the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s; with most finding four phases of discussion. For example, communication researcher B. Aubrey Fisher (1970) showed groups going sequentially through an orientation stage, a conflict stage, a stage in which a decision emerges and a stage in which that decision is reinforced. Much of this research (although not necessarily Fisher's) had two fundamental flaws. First, all group data was combined before analysis, making it impossible to determine whether there were differences among groups in their sequence of discussion. Second, group discussion content was compared across the same number of stages as the researcher hypothesized, such that if the researcher believed there were four stages to discussion, there was no way to find out if there actually were five or more. In the 1980s, communication researcher Marshall Scott Poole (Poole & Roth, 1989) examined a sample of groups without making these errors and noted substantial differences among them in the number and order of stages. He hypothesized that groups finding themselves in some difficulty due to task complexity, an unclear leadership structure or poor cohesion act as if they feel the need to conduct a "complete" discussion and thus are more likely to pass through all stages as the linear phase model implies, whereas groups feeling confident due to task simplicity, a clear leadership structure and cohesion are more likely to skip stages apparently deemed unnecessary.
Another milestone in the study of group discussion content was early 1960s work by communication researchers Thomas Scheidel and Laura Crowell (1964) regarding the process by which groups examine individual proposed solutions to their problem. They concluded that after a proposal is made, groups discuss it in an implied attempt to determine their "comfort level" with it and then drop it in lieu of a different proposal. In a procedure akin to the survival of the fittest, proposals viewed favorably would emerge later in discussion, whereas those viewed unfavorably would not; the authors referred to this process as "spiralling." Although there are serious methodological problems with this work, other studies have led to similar conclusions. For example, in the 1970s, social psychologist L. Richard Hoffman noted that odds of a proposal's acceptance is strongly associated with the arithmetical difference between the number of utterances supporting versus rejecting that proposal. More recent work has shown that groups differ substantially in the extent to which they spiral.

Public Communication
Public communication involves speech by one person to a large group at a time. This is one way communication as the speaker gives speech and the audience listens only.

Mass communication is the term used to describe the academic study of various means by which individuals and entities relay information to large segments of the population all at once through mass media. It is usually understood to relate to newspaper and magazine publishing, radio, television, and film, as they are used both for disseminating news and for advertising. The term 'mass' denotes great volume, range or extent (of people or production) and reception of messages .The important point about 'mass' is not that a given number of individuals receives the products, but rather that the products are available in principle to a plurality of recipients. This is an image associated with some earlier critiques of 'mass culture' and Mass society which generally assumed that the development of mass communication has had a largely negative impact on modern social life, creating a kind of bland and homogeneous culture which entertains individuals without challenging them The aspect of 'communication' refers to the giving and taking of meaning, the transmission and reception of messages. The word 'communication' is really equated with 'transmission', as viewed by the sender, rather than in the fuller meaning, which includes the notions of response, sharing and interaction. Messages are produced by one set of individuals and transmitted to others who are typically situated in settings that are spatially and temporally remote from the original context of production. Therefore, the term 'communication' in this context masks the social and industrial nature of the media, promoting a tendency to think of them as interpersonal communication.

Communication network in organization

Formal and Informal Communication network
This decision consists in selecting formal communications between actors.
Formal communications are easier to enforce, to monitor and to improve.
The institutionalisation of communications, by the implementation of formal communication channels, may contribute to assign a positive value to the communications within the enterprise culture, thereby encouraging people to communicate.
Formal communications are better suited to formal and stable business processes.
Formal communications per se usually increase reliability and traceability. They may also better justify investments which contribute to the improvement of communications in terms of efficiency, reliability, and security.
A strong vertical division of work requires formal communications up and down hierarchical levels of management.
In informal, or unstable processes, formal communications may introduce a lack of flexibility in the processes and prevent the organisation from adapting them or treating special cases.
Formal communications may hit some psychological barriers, and may be not used. Actor capabilities to use formal communications must then be assessed and possibly improved.
Formal communications may put constraints on actors which decrease their efficiency; therefore the actors would have a negative attitude towards using them.

Thursday, October 18, 2007

Case Study : Hindustan Unilever


Date and Time of Submission: 29-10-2007, 1.30 p.m
Note: Only handwritten solutions are permitted.

Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL) is India's largest fast moving consumer goods company, with leadership in Home & Personal Care Products and Foods & Beverages. HUL's brands, spread across 20 distinct consumer categories, touch the lives of two out of three Indians. They endow the company with a scale of combined volumes of about 4 million tonnes and sales of Rs.10,000 crores. The mission that inspires HUL's over 15,000 employees is to "add vitality to life". With 35 Power Brands, HUL meets everyday needs for nutrition, hygiene, and personal care with brands that help people feel good, look good and get more out of life. It is a mission HUL shares with its parent company, Unilever, which holds 51.55% of the equity. A Fortune 500 transnational, Unilever sells Foods and Home and Personal Care brands in about 100 countries worldwide.

Unilever's mission is to add Vitality to life. We meet everyday needs for nutrition, hygiene, and personal care with brands that help people feel good, look good and get more out of life.
Unilever's mission is to add Vitality to life. We meet everyday needs for nutrition, hygiene and personal care with brands that help people feel good, look good and get more out of life

Our deep roots in local cultures and markets around the world give us our strong relationship with consumers and are the foundation for our future growth. We will bring our wealth of knowledge and international expertise to the service of local consumers - a truly multi-local multinational.

Our long-term success requires a total commitment to exceptional standards of performance and productivity, to working together effectively, and to a willingness to embrace new ideas and learn continuously.
To succeed also requires, we believe, the highest standards of corporate behaviour towards everyone we work with, the communities we touch, and the environment on which we have an impact.
This is our road to sustainable, profitable growth, creating long-term value for our shareholders, our people, and our business partners.

Over 100 years' link with India

In the summer of 1888, visitors to the Kolkata harbour noticed crates full of Sunlight soap bars, embossed with the words "Made in England by Lever Brothers". With it, began an era of marketing branded Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG).Soon after followed Lifebuoy in 1895 and other famous brands like Pears, Lux and Vim. Vanaspati was launched in 1918 and the famous Dalda brand came to the market in 1937.

In 1931, Unilever set up its first Indian subsidiary, Hindustan Vanaspati Manufacturing Company, followed by Lever Brothers India Limited (1933) and United Traders Limited (1935). These three companies merged to form HUL in November 1956; HUL offered 10% of its equity to the Indian public, being the first among the foreign subsidiaries to do so. Unilever now holds 51.55% equity in the company. The rest of the shareholding is distributed among about 380,000 individual shareholders and financial institutions.

The erstwhile Brooke Bond's presence in India dates back to 1900. By 1903, the company had launched Red Label tea in the country. In 1912, Brooke Bond & Co. India Limited was formed. Brooke Bond joined the Unilever fold in 1984 through an international acquisition. The erstwhile Lipton's links with India were forged in 1898. Unilever acquired Lipton in 1972, and in 1977 Lipton Tea (India) Limited was incorporated.Pond's (India) Limited had been present in India since 1947. It joined the Unilever fold through an international acquisition of Chesebrough Pond's USA in 1986.Since the very early years, HUL has vigorously responded to the stimulus of economic growth. The growth process has been accompanied by judicious diversification, always in line with Indian opinions and aspirations.The liberalisation of the Indian economy, started in 1991, clearly marked an inflexion in HUL's and the Group's growth curve. Removal of the regulatory framework allowed the company to explore every single product and opportunity segment, without any constraints on production capacity.

Simultaneously, deregulation permitted alliances, acquisitions and mergers. In one of the most visible and talked about events of India's corporate history, the erstwhile Tata Oil Mills Company (TOMCO) merged with HUL, effective from April 1, 1993. In 1995, HUL and yet another Tata company, Lakme Limited, formed a 50:50 joint venture, Lakme Lever Limited, to market Lakme's market-leading cosmetics and other appropriate products of both the companies. Subsequently in 1998, Lakme Limited sold its brands to HUL and divested its 50% stake in the joint venture to the company.HUL formed a 50:50 joint venture with the US-based Kimberly Clark Corporation in 1994, Kimberly-Clark Lever Ltd, which markets Huggies Diapers and Kotex Sanitary Pads. HUL has also set up a subsidiary in Nepal, Nepal Lever Limited (NLL), and its factory represents the largest manufacturing investment in the Himalayan kingdom. The NLL factory manufactures HUL's products like Soaps, Detergents and Personal Products both for the domestic market and exports to India.

The 1990s also witnessed a string of crucial mergers, acquisitions and alliances on the Foods and Beverages front. In 1992, the erstwhile Brooke Bond acquired Kothari General Foods, with significant interests in Instant Coffee. In 1993, it acquired the Kissan business from the UB Group and the Dollops Icecream business from Cadbury India.As a measure of backward integration, Tea Estates and Doom Dooma, two plantation companies of Unilever, were merged with Brooke Bond. Then in July 1993, Brooke Bond India and Lipton India merged to form Brooke Bond Lipton India Limited (BBLIL), enabling greater focus and ensuring synergy in the traditional Beverages business. 1994 witnessed BBLIL launching the Wall's range of Frozen Desserts. By the end of the year, the company entered into a strategic alliance with the Kwality Icecream Group families and in 1995 the Milkfood 100% Icecream marketing and distribution rights too were acquired.
Finally, BBLIL merged with HUL, with effect from January 1, 1996. The internal restructuring culminated in the merger of Pond's (India) Limited (PIL) with HUL in 1998. The two companies had significant overlaps in Personal Products, Speciality Chemicals and Exports businesses, besides a common distribution system since 1993 for Personal Products. The two also had a common management pool and a technology base. The amalgamation was done to ensure for the Group, benefits from scale economies both in domestic and export markets and enable it to fund investments required for aggressively building new categories.

In January 2000, in a historic step, the government decided to award 74 per cent equity in Modern Foods to HUL, thereby beginning the divestment of government equity in public sector undertakings (PSU) to private sector partners. HUL's entry into Bread is a strategic extension of the company's wheat business. In 2002, HUL acquired the government's remaining stake in Modern Foods.
In 2003, HUL acquired the Cooked Shrimp and Pasteurised Crabmeat business of the Amalgam Group of Companies, a leader in value added Marine Products exports.

Sunlight soap introduced in India.
Lifebuoy soap launched; Lever Brothers appoints agents in Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, and Karachi.
Pears soap introduced in India.
Brooke Bond Red Label tea launched.
Lux flakes introduced.
Vim scouring powder introduced.
Vinolia soap launched in India.
Vanaspati introduced by Dutch margarine manufacturers like Van den Berghs, Jurgens, Verschure Creameries, and Hartogs.
Rinso soap powder introduced.
Gibbs dental preparations launched.
Lever Brothers gets full control of North West Soap Company.
Hartogs registers Dalda Trademark.
Unilever is formed on January 1 through merger of Lever Brothers and Margarine Unie.
Hindustan Vanaspati Manufacturing Company registered on November 27; Sewri factory site bought.
Vanaspati manufacture starts at Sewri.
Application made for setting up soap factory next to the Vanaspati factory at Sewri; Lever Brothers India Limited incorporated on October 17.
Soap manufacture begins at Sewri factory in October; North West Soap Company's Garden Reach Factory, Kolkata rented and expanded to produce Lever brands.
United Traders incorporated on May 11 to market Personal Products.
Mr. Prakash Tandon, one of the first Indian covenanted managers, joins HVM.
Garden Reach Factory purchased outright; concentration on building up Dalda Vanaspati as a brand.
Agencies in Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Karachi taken over; company acquires own sales force.
Unilever takes firm decision to "train Indians to take over junior and senior management positions instead of Europeans".
Personal Products manufacture begins in India at Garden Reach Factory.
Reorganisation of the three companies with common management but separate marketing operations.
Pond's Cold Cream launched.
Mr. Prakash Tandon becomes first Indian Director. Shamnagar, Tiruchy, and Ghaziabad Vanaspati factories bought.
65% of managers are Indians.
Three companies merge to form Hindustan Lever Limited, with 10% Indian equity participation.
Unilever Special Committee approves research activity by Hindustan Lever.
Research Unit starts functioning at Mumbai Factory.
Surf launched.
Mr. Prakash Tandon takes over as the first Indian Chairman; 191 of the 205 managers are Indians.
Formal Exports Department starts.
Head Office building at Backbay Reclamation, Mumbai, opened.
Etah dairy set up, Anik ghee launched; Animal feeds plant at Ghaziabad; Sunsilk shampoo launched.
Signal toothpaste launched; Indian shareholding increases to 14%.
Lever's baby food, more new foods introduced; Nickel catalyst production begins; Indian shareholding increases to 15%. Statutory price control on Vanaspati; Taj Mahal tea launched.
Hindustan Lever Research Centre, opens in Mumbai.
Mr. V. G. Rajadhyaksha takes over as Chairman from Mr. Prakash Tandon; Fine Chemicals Unit commissioned at Andheri; informal price control on soap begins.
Rin bar launched; Fine Chemicals Unit starts production; Bru coffee launched
Mr. V. G. Rajadhyaksha presents plan for diversification into chemicals to Unilever Special Committee - plan approved; Clinic shampoo launched.
Mr. T. Thomas takes over as Chairman from Mr. V. G. Rajadhyaksha.
Pilot plant for industrial chemicals at Taloja; informal price control on soaps withdrawn; Liril marketed.
Ten-year modernisation plan for soaps and detergent plants; Jammu project work begins; statutory price control on Vanaspati and baby foods withdrawn; Close-up toothpaste launched.
Construction work of Haldia chemicals complex begins; Taloja chemicals unit begins functioning.
Jammu synthetic Detergents plant inaugurated; Indian shareholding increases to 18.57%.
Indian shareholding increases to 34%; Fair & Lovely skin cream launched.
Sodium Tripolyphospate plant at Haldia commissioned.
Dr. A. S. Ganguly takes over as Chairman from Mr. T. Thomas; Unilever shareholding in the company comes down to 51%.
Government allows 51% Unilever shareholding.
Foods, Animal Feeds businesses transferred to Lipton.
Agri-products unit at Hyderabad starts functioning - first range of hybrid seeds comes out; Khamgaon Soaps unit and Yavatmal Personal Products unit start production.
Launch of Lipton Taaza tea.
Mr. S. M. Datta takes over as Chairman from Dr. A. S. Ganguly.
Surf Ultra detergent launched.
HLL recognised by Government of India as Star Trading House in Exports.
HLL's largest competitor, Tata Oil Mills Company (TOMCO), merges with the company with effect from April 1, 1993, the biggest such in Indian industry till that time. Merger ultimately accomplished in December 1994; Launch of Vim bar; Kissan acquired from the UB Group.
HLL forms Nepal Lever Limited, HLL and US-based Kimberley-Clark Corporation form 50:50 joint venture - Kimberley-Clark Lever Ltd. - to market Huggies diapers and Kotex feminine care products. Factory set up at Pune in 1995; HLL acquires Kwality and Milkfood 100% brandnames and distribution assets. HLL introduces Wall's.
HLL and Indian cosmetics major, Lakme Ltd., form 50:50 joint venture - Lakme Lever Ltd.; HLL enters branded staples business with salt; HLL recognised as Super Star Trading House.
Mr. K. B. Dadiseth takes over as Chairman from Mr. S. M. Datta; Merger of Group company, Brooke Bond Lipton India Limited, with HLL, with effect from January 1; HLL introduces branded atta; Surf Excel launched.
Unilever sets up International Research Laboratory in Bangalore; new Regional Innovation Centres also come up.
Group company, Pond's India Ltd., merges with HLL with effect from January 1, 1998. HLL acquires Lakme brand, factories and Lakme Ltd.'s 50% equity in Lakme Lever Ltd.
Mr. M. S. Banga takes over as Chairman from Mr. K. B. Dadiseth, who joins the Unilever Board; HLL acquires 74% stake in Modern Food Industries Ltd., the first public sector company to be disinvested by the Government of India.
HLL enters Ayurvedic health & beauty centre category with the Ayush range and Ayush Therapy Centres.
Launch of Hindustan Lever Network; acquisition of the Amalgam Group
Launch of "Pureit" water purifiers

Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL) is India's largest Fast Moving Consumer Goods company, touching the lives of two out of three Indians with over 20 distinct categories in Home & Personal Care Products and Foods & Beverages. They endow the company with a scale of combined volumes of about 4 million tonnes and sales of Rs.10,000 crores. HUL is also one of the country's largest exporters; it has been recognised as a Golden Super Star Trading House by the Government of India. The mission that inspires HUL's over 15,000 employees, including over 1,300 managers, is to "add vitality to life." HUL meets everyday needs for nutrition, hygiene, and personal care with brands that help people feel good, look good and get more out of life. It is a mission HUL shares with its parent company, Unilever, which holds 51.55% of the equity. The rest of the shareholding is distributed among 380,000 individual shareholders and financial institutions.

HUL's brands - like Lifebuoy, Lux, Surf Excel, Rin, Wheel, Fair & Lovely, Pond's, Sunsilk, Clinic, Pepsodent, Close-up, Lakme, Brooke Bond, Kissan, Knorr-Annapurna, Kwality Wall's – are household names across the country and span many categories - soaps, detergents, personal products, tea, coffee, branded staples, ice cream and culinary products. They are manufactured over 40 factories across India. The operations involve over 2,000 suppliers and associates. HUL's distribution network, comprising about 4,000 redistribution stockists, covering 6.3 million retail outlets reaching the entire urban population, and about 250 million rural consumers. HUL has traditionally been a company, which incorporates latest technology in all its operations. The Hindustan Unilever Research Centre (HLRC) was set up in 1958, and now has facilities in Mumbai and Bangalore. HLRC and the Global Technology Centres in India have over 200 highly qualified scientists and technologists, many with post-doctoral experience acquired in the US and Europe.

HUL believes that an organisation's worth is also in the service it renders to the community. HUL is focusing on health & hygiene education, women empowerment, and water management. It is also involved in education and rehabilitation of special or underprivileged children, care for the destitute and HIV-positive, and rural development. HUL has also responded in case of national calamities / adversities and contributes through various welfare measures, most recent being the village built by HUL in earthquake affected Gujarat, and relief & rehabilitation after the Tsunami caused devastation in South India.

In 2001, the company embarked on an ambitious programme, Shakti. Through Shakti, HUL is creating micro-enterprise opportunities for rural women, thereby improving their livelihood and the standard of living in rural communities. Shakti also includes health and hygiene education through the Shakti Vani Programme, and creating access to relevant information through the iShakti community portal. The program now covers 15 states in India and has over 31,000 women entrepreneurs in its fold, reaching out to 100,000 villages and directly reaching to 150 million rural consumers. By the end of 2010, Shakti aims to have 100,000 Shakti entrepreneurs covering 500,000 villages, touching the lives of over 600 million people.

HUL is also running a rural health programme – Lifebuoy Swasthya Chetana. The programme endeavours to induce adoption of hygienic practices among rural Indians and aims to bring down the incidence of diarrhoea. It has already touched 70 million people in approximately 15000 villages of 8 states. The vision is to make a billion Indians feel safe and secure.

If Hindustan Unilever straddles the Indian corporate world, it is because of being single-minded in identifying itself with Indian aspirations and needs in every walk of life.

Hindustan Unilever Limited is India's largest Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) company. It is present in Home & Personal Care and Foods & Beverages categories. HUL and Group companies have about 16,000 employees, including 1200 managers.

The fundamental principle determining the organisation structure is to infuse speed and flexibility in decision-making and implementation, with empowered managers across the company's nationwide operations. For this, HUL is organised into two self-sufficient divisions - Home & Personal Care & Foods - supported by certain central functions and resources to leverage economies of scale wherever relevant.

Board At the apex is the Board, headed by the Chairman, and comprising 5 whole time Directors and 5 independent non-executive Directors. The day to day operations are supervised by the National Management comprising the Vice Chairman, Managing Director (HPC), Managing Director (Foods) and the Finance Director.

Divisions Each division is self-sufficient with dedicated resources and assets in sales, marketing, commercial, and manufacturing. The two divisions are further reorganised into categories.
Typically, each category and each function - Sales, Commercial, Manufacturing - is headed by a Vice President. They with their respective Managing Director, comprise that Division's Management Committee.

For managing sales operations, HUL divides the country into four regions, with regional branches in Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai and Mumbai. Headed by a Regional Manager, they comprise Regional Sales Managers and Area Sales Managers, assisted by dedicated field forces, comprising Sales Officers and Territory Sales Incharges.

In Marketing, each category has a Marketing Manager who heads a team of Brand Managers dedicated to each or a group of brands.
The commercial team of a Division is responsible for its supply chain management. There are teams dedicated to sourcing, planning and logistics.
Each Division has a nationwide manufacturing base, with each factory peopled by teams of Production, Engineering, Quality Assurance, Commercial and Personnel Managers.
Central functions

HUL's Central Functions are Finance, Human Resources, Technology, Research,
Information Technology, Legal & Secretarial, and Corporate Affairs. Their services are shared across the company. But, wherever necessary, managerial resources are dedicated exclusively to a business. For example, each Division now has dedicated HR managers. HUL believes that while it leverages the scale of a large corporate, it must also retain the soul of a small company. Its organisation structure, which has and will continue to evolve with time, is aimed at achieving this knitting.

BusinessesHome & Personal Care• Personal Wash• Fabric Wash• Home Care• Oral Care• Skin Care• Hair Care• Deodorants & Talcs• Colour Cosmetics Foods• Tea• Coffee • Branded Staples• Culinary Products• Ice Creams• Modern Foods rangesNew Ventures• Hindustan Unilever Network• Ayush ayurvedic products & services• Sangam• Pureit water purifiersExports• HPC• Beverages• Marine Products• Rice• Castor

Mr.Harish ManwaniChairman
A distinguished alumnus in statistics & economics and MBA from Mumbai University, Mr. Manwani joined HUL in 1976. Following several Sales and Marketing assignments, he became Divisional Vice President - Marketing. Mr. Manwani joined the Board of HUL in 1995, responsible for the Personal Products business. In addition, he held regional responsibility as the Category Leader for Personal Products for the then Central Asia and Middle East (CAME) Business Group.

Mr. Manwani then moved to the UK as Senior Vice President for the Global Hair Care and Oral Care Categories and in early 2001 was appointed President of the Home & Personal Care (HPC) - Latin America Business Group

In 2004, he was appointed President and Chief Executive Officer of the HPC - North America Business Group. In April 2005, he was elevated to the Unilever Executive as President – Asia & Africa.

Mr. Manwani has attended the Advanced Management Programme (AMP) at Harvard Business School.

Mr.Douglas BaillieCEO and Managing Director

Douglas Baillie (50) Born and educated in Zimbabwe, Mr. Baillie graduated from the University of Natal with majors in business finance, marketing and business administration and joined Unilever SA in 1978. His career over the years has spanned various sales and marketing positions, culminating in a secondment to Lever Rexona in Australia in 1987.
On his return to South Africa in late 1988, he took up the position of Sales Director, which was followed by a spell as Marketing Director. Mr. Baillie moved to London in 1994 to Personal Products Co-ordination where he became the Regional Liaison Member for Africa, Middle East, Central and Eastern Europe and Turkey before moving to Vice President, Home and Personal Care for the Africa Business Group. Mr. Baillie was appointed Managing Director Lever Pond’s South Africa in 1997 and National Manager, Unilever South Africa, in May 2000. Whilst in this position Mr. Baillie served on several external Boards including the Advertising Standards Authority, the Consumer Goods Council of South Africa and was a member of Presidential Big Business working group

Prior to assuming responsibilities as the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Hindustan Unilever Limited, Mr. Baillie was Group Vice President and Head of Unilever AMET (Africa, Middle East and Turkey). Mr. Baillie is also the Group Vice President responsible for Unilever’s business in South Asia, which includes Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Bangladesh.

D. Sundaram
Finance & IT Director
Mr. D. Sundaram is post-graduate from Madras University and a Fellow of the Institute of Cost and Works Accountants of India (FICWA). He joined Hindustan Unilever in 1975 as a Management Trainee. He has worked in various capacities as Corporate Accountant, Commercial Manager and Treasurer.He was seconded to Unilever, London,as Commercial Officer for Africa and Middle East
Group between 1990 and 1993 and on return was the Financial Member of the TOMCO Integration team from 1993 to 1994. He became the Finance Director of the erstwhile Brooke Bond Lipton India Limited in March 1994. He was again seconded to Unilever in August 1996 as Senior Vice President–Finance, Central Asia and Middle East Group with responsibility for Finance, IT and business strategies for Unilever companies in the Indian sub-continent, North Africa and the Middle East countries. He returned to India in May 1999 as Finance & IT Director of HUL.

Mr. Nitin Paranjpe
Exectuive Director
Mr. Nitin Paranjpe after obtaining a degree in BE (Mech) and MBA in Marketing (JBIMS) from Mumbai joined the Company as a Management Trainee in 1987. In his early years in the Company, Mr. Paranjpe worked as Area Sales Manager – Detergents and then Product Manager – Detergents.
In April 1996, he became the Branch Manager, Chennai and in February 1999 was appointed a member of the Project Millennium team. In 2000, he moved to Unilever, London and was involved in a review of the Organisation Structure. During 2001, he was Assistant to the Unilever Chairman & Executive Committee in London. On his return to India in 2002, he became the Category Head – Fabric Wash & Regional Brand Director (Asia) for some Laundry and Household Cleaning (HHC) Brands. In 2004, he became Vice President – Home Care (Laundry & HHC) India responsible for the top and bottom-line of the Homecare business. Effective March 2006 Mr. Paranjpe is the Executive Director for the Home & Personal Care business.

Mr. Sanjiv Kakkar
Mr. Sanjiv Kakkar is BA (Economics) and PGDM from IIM Ahmedabad with 23 years work experience. Mr. Kakkar joined the Company in June 1984 and has worked in various Sales and Marketing assignments. His marketing experience spans across categories including Beverages, Personal Products and Oral & Hair Care
He has also had key stints as Category Head of Oral and General Manager – Sales & Customer Management of Personal Products. He was appointed Vice President – Oral & Hair Care in May 2004. In March 2006, Mr. Kakkar was appointed as Executive Director - Foods and joined the Management Committee on 1st January 2007. Sanjiv was appointed as the Executive Director - Sales and Customer Development in May 2007.
Mr. A. Narayan is the Managing Director and CEO of ICI India Limited. He is also the Chairman of ICI India Research & Technology Centre. Mr. Narayan joined the Board as Independent Non-Executive Director in 2001.
V. Narayanan
Mr. V. Narayanan is a post-graduate from Madras University. He was Chairman and Managing Director of the erstwhile Pond's (India) Ltd. He is now Chairman of the Academy of Management Excellence. He joined the Board as Independent Non-Executive Director in 1987.
D. S. Parekh
Mr. D. S. Parekh holds a FCA degree from England & Wales. Mr. Parekh has held senior positions in Grindlays and Chase Manhattan. He is the Executive Chairman of Housing Development Finance Corporation. Mr. Parekh joined the Board as Independent Non-Executive Director in 1997.
C. K. Prahalad
Professor C. K. Prahalad is the Harvey C. Fruehauf Professor of Business Administration at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, the US. His contribution to business strategy is globally recognised. He joined the Board as Independent Non-Executive Director in 2000.
S. Ramadorai
Mr. S. Ramadorai is the Chief Executive Officer of Tata Consultancy Services. Mr. Ramadorai is also Chairman of Tata Technologies Ltd. and Chairman of CMC Ltd. He joined the Board as Independent Non-Executive Director in 2002.

Code of Business Principles
Unilever has earned a reputation for conducting its business with integrity and with respect for the interests of those our activities can affect. This reputation is an asset, just as real as our people and brands.
Our first priority is to be a successful business and that means investing for growth and balancing short-term and long-term interests. It also means caring about our consumers, employees and shareholders, our business partners and the world in which we live.
To succeed requires the highest standards of behaviour from all of us. The general principles contained in this Code set out those standards. More detailed guidance tailored to the needs of different countries and companies will build on these principles as appropriate, but will not include any standards less rigorous than those contained in this Code.
We want this Code to be more than a collection of high-sounding statements. It must have practical value in our day-to-day business and each one of us must follow these principles in the spirit as well as the letter.

Code of Business Principles

Standard of Conduct
We conduct our operations with honesty, integrity and openness, and with respect for the human rights and interests of our employees.
We shall similarly respect the legitimate interests of those with whom we have relationships.Obeying the Law
Unilever companies and employees are required to comply with the laws and regulations of the countries in which we operate.
EmployeesUnilever is committed to diversity in a working environment where there is mutual trust and respect and where everyone feels responsible for the performance and reputation of our company.
We will recruit, employ and promote employees on the sole basis of the qualifications and abilities needed for the work to be performed.
We are committed to safe and healthy working conditions for all employees. We will not use any form of forced, compulsory or child labour.
We are committed to working with employees to develop and enhance each individual's skills and capabilities.
We respect the dignity of the individual and the right of employees to freedom of association.We will maintain good communications with employees through company based information and consultation procedures.
ConsumersUnilever is committed to providing branded products and services which consistently offer value in terms of price and quality, and which are safe for their intended use. Products and services will be accurately and properly labelled, advertised and communicated.ShareholdersUnilever will conduct its operations in accordance with internationally accepted principles of good corporate governance. We will provide timely, regular and reliable information on our activities, structure, financial situation and performance to all shareholders.Business Partners
Unilever is committed to establishing mutually beneficial relations with our suppliers, customers and business partners.
In our business dealings we expect our partners to adhere to business principles consistent with our own.
Community Involvement
Unilever strives to be a trusted corporate citizen and, as an integral part of society, to fulfill our responsibilities to the societies and communities in which we operate.Public Activities
Unilever companies are encouraged to promote and defend their legitimate business interests.Unilever will co-operate with governments and other organisations, both directly and through bodies such as trade associations, in the development of proposed legislation and other regulations which may affect legitimate business interests.Unilever neither supports political parties nor contributes to the funds of groups whose activities are calculated to promote party interests.The Environment
Unilever is committed to making continuous improvements in the management of our environmental impact and to the longer-term goal of developing a sustainable business.Unilever will work in partnership with others to promote environmental care, increase understanding of environmental issues and disseminate good practice.InnovationIn our scientific innovation to meet consumer needs we will respect the concerns of our consumers and of society. We will work on the basis of sound science, applying rigorous standards of product safety.
CompetitionUnilever believes in vigorous yet fair competition and supports the development of appropriate competition laws. Unilever companies and employees will conduct their operations in accordance with the principles of fair competition and all applicable regulations.Business Integrity

Unilever does not give or receive, whether directly or indirectly, bribes or other improper advantages for business or financial gain. No employee may offer, give or receive any gift or payment which is, or may be construed as being, a bribe. Any demand for, or offer of, a bribe must be rejected immediately and reported to management.Unilever accounting records and supporting documents must accurately describe and reflect the nature of the underlying transactions. No undisclosed or unrecorded account, fund or asset will be established or maintained.

Conflicts of Interests

All Unilever employees are expected to avoid personal activities and financial interests which could conflict with their responsibilities to the company.Unilever employees must not seek gain for themselves or others through misuse of their positions.

Compliance – Monitoring – Reporting
Compliance with these principles is an essential element in our business success. The Unilever Board is responsible for ensuring these principles are communicated to, and understood and observed by, all employees.

Day-to-day responsibility is delegated to the senior management of the regions and operating companies. They are responsible for implementing these principles, if necessary through more detailed guidance tailored to local needs.Assurance of compliance is given and monitored each year. Compliance with the Code is subject to review by the Board supported by the Audit Committee of the Board and the Corporate Risk Committee.
Any breaches of the Code must be reported in accordance with the procedures specified by the Joint Secretaries. The Board of Unilever will not criticise management for any loss of business resulting from adherence to these principles and other mandatory policies and instructions.
The Board of Unilever expects employees to bring to their attention, or to that of senior management, any breach or suspected breach of these principles.Provision has been made for employees to be able to report in confidence and no employee will suffer as a consequence of doing so.

In this Code the expressions 'Unilever' and 'Unilever companies' are used for convenience and mean the Unilever Group of companies comprising Unilever N.V., Unilever PLC and their respective subsidiary companies. The Board of Unilever means the Directors of Unilever N.V. and Unilever PLC.

Environment Policy

Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL) supplies high quality goods and services to meet the daily needs of consumers and industry. In doing so, the Company is committed to exhibit the highest standards of corporate behaviour towards its consumers, employees, the societies and the world in which we live.The company recognises its joint responsibility with the Government and the Public to protect environment and is committed to regulate all its activities so as to follow best practicable means for minimising adverse environmental impact arising out of its operations.The company is committed to making its products environmentally acceptable, on a scientifically established basis, while fulfilling consumers' requirements for excellent quality, performance and safety.The aim of the Policy is to do all that is reasonably practicable to prevent or minimise, encompassing all available knowledge and information, the risk of an adverse environmental impact arising from processing of the product, its use or foreseeable misuse.This Policy document reflects the continuing commitment of the Board for sound Environment Management of its operations. The Policy applies to development of a process, product and services, from research to full-scale operation. It is applicable to all company operations covering its plantations, manufacturing, sales and distribution, research & innovation centres and offices. This document defines the aims and scope of the Policy as well as responsibilities for the achievement of the objectives laid down.The Vision Our vision is to continue to be an environmentally responsible organisation making continuous improvements in the management of the environmental impact of our operations.We will achieve this through an Integrated Environment Management approach, which focuses on People, Technology and Facilities, supported by Management Commitment as the prime driver.The Environment Policy Hindustan Unilever Ltd. (HUL) is committed to meeting the needs of customers and consumers in an environmentally sound manner, through continuous improvement in environmental performance in all our activities. Management at all levels, jointly with employees, is responsible and will be held accountable for company's environmental performance.Accordingly, HUL's aims are to:
· Ensure safety of its products and operations for the environment by using standards of environmental safety, which are scientifically sustainable and commonly acceptable.
· Develop, introduce and maintain environmental management systems across the company to meet the company standards as well as statutory requirements for environment. Verify compliance with these standards through regular auditing.
· Assess environmental impact of all its activities and set annual improvement objectives and targets and review these to ensure that these are being met at the individual unit and corporate levels.
· Reduce Waste, conserve Energy and explore opportunities for reuse and recycle.
· Involve all employees in the implementation of this Policy and provide appropriate training. Provide for dissemination of information to employees on environmental objectives and performance through suitable communication networks.
· Encourage suppliers and co-packers to develop and employ environmentally superior processes and ingredients and co-operate with other members of the supply chain to improve overall environmental performance.
· Work in partnership with external bodies and Government agencies to promote environmental care, increase understanding of environmental issues and disseminate good practice.Responsibilities Corporate The Board and the Management Committee of HUL is committed to conduct the company operations in an environmentally sound manner. The Management Committee will:
· Set mandatory standards and establish environmental improvement objectives and targets for HUL as a whole and for individual units, and ensure these are included in the annual operating plans.
· Formally review environment performance of the company once every quarter.
· Review environment performance when visiting units and recognise exemplary performance.
· Nominate:- A senior line manager responsible for environmental performance at the individual HUL site.- HUL environmental coordinator.The Management Committee, through the nominated environmental coordinator will:
· Ensure implementation of HUL Policy on environment and compliance with Unilever and HUL environmental standards and the standards stipulated under relevant national / local legislation. When believed to be appropriate, apply more stringent criteria than those required by law.
· Assess environmental impact of HUL operations and establish strategies for sound environment management and key implementation steps.
· Encourage development of inherently safer and cleaner manufacturing processes to further raise the standards of environment performance.
· Establish appropriate management systems for environment management and ensure regular auditing to verify compliance.
· Establish systems for appropriate training in implementation of Environment Management Systems at work.
· Ensure that all employees are made aware of individual and collective responsibilities towards environment.
· Arrange for expert advice on all aspects of environment management.
· Participate, wherever possible, with appropriate industry and Government bodies advising on environmental legislation and interact with national and local authorities concerned with protection of environment.Individual UnitsThe overall responsibility for environment management at each unit will rest with the Unit Head, who will ensure implementation of HUL Policy on environment at unit level. Concerned line managers / heads of departments are responsible for environmental performance at department levels.In order to fulfill the requirements of the Environment Policy at each site, the Unit Head will:
· Designate a unit environment coordinator who will be responsible for co-ordinating environmental activities at unit, collating environmental statistics and providing / arranging for expert advice.
· Agree with the Management Committee Member responsible for the unit, specific environmental improvement objectives and targets for the unit and ensure that these are incorporated in the annual objectives of the concerned managers and officers and are reviewed periodically.
· Ensure that the unit complies with Unilever and HUL mandatory standards and the relevant national and state regulations with respect to environment.
· Ensure formal environmental risk assessment to identify associated environmental aspects and take appropriate steps to control risks at acceptable levels.
· Ensure that all new operations are subjected to a systematic and formal analysis to assess environmental impact. Findings of such exercises should be implemented prior to commencement of the activity.
· Manage change in People, Technology and Facilities through a planned approach based on training, risk assessment, pre-commissioning audits and adherence to design codes.
· Regularly review environment performance of the unit against set objectives and targets and strive for continual improvement.
· Sustain a high degree of environmental awareness through regular promotional campaigns and employee participation through training, safety committees, emergency drills etc.
· Ensure dissemination of relevant information on environment within the unit and to outside bodies, and regularly interact with Government authorities concerned for protection of environment.
· Maintain appropriate emergency procedures consistent with available technologies to prevent / control environmental incidents.
· Provide appropriate training to all employees.
· Ensure periodic audits to verify compliance with environment management systems and personally carry out sample environment audits to check efficacy of the systems.
· Report environmental statistics to HUL Corporate Safety & Environment Group on a monthly basis.Research and Innovation Centres
Since most new products and processes are developed in these Units, certain additional responsibilities devolve on them to ensure implementation of the Environment Policy of the company. In addition to the Unit Head's responsibilities outlined above, the heads of these units will:
· Ensure that a formal and systematic risk assessment exercise is undertaken during the process/product development stage with specific reference to environmental impact.
· Transfer technology to the pilot plant and main production through a properly documented process specification which will clearly define environmental impact and risks associated with processes, products, raw material and finished product handling, transport and storage.
· Ensure that treatment techniques are developed for any wastes generated as a result of the new product/process and is incorporated into the process specifications
Quality Policy
Hindustan Unilever Limited considers quality as one of the principal strategic objectives to guarantee its growth and leadership in the markets in which it operates.The company is committed to respond creatively and competitively to the changing needs and aspirations of our consumers through relentless pursuit of technological excellence, innovation and quality management across our businesses, and offer superior quality products and services that are appropriate to the various price points in the market as well as to our commitment to building shareholder value.The company recognises that its employees are the primary source of success in its operations and is committed to training and providing them the necessary tools and techniques as well as empowering them to ensure broad base compliance of this policy in the organisation at all levels.The company is committed to fulfill its legal and statutory obligations and international standards of product safety and hygiene and will not knowingly sell product that is harmful to consumers or their belongings. It will institute systems and measures to monitor compliance in order to meet its responsibilities to consumers.The company will maintain an open communication channel with its consumers and customers and will carefully monitor the feedback to continuously improve its products and services and set quality standards to fulfill them.The company is committed to extend its quality standards to its contract manufacturers, key suppliers and service providers and by entering into alliances with them, to jointly improve the quality of its products and services. This policy is applicable to production from its own facilities as well as to production that is outsourced.The company will periodically review this quality policy for its effectiveness and consistency with business objectives.The company delegates authority and responsibility for dissemination and implementation of this policy to each Business and Unit Head.
Safety and Health Policy
Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL) supplies high quality goods and services to meet the daily needs of consumers and customers. In doing so, the Company is committed to exhibit the highest standards of corporate behavior towards its consumers, employees, the societies and the environment in which we operate. Towards this, the Company recognises its responsibility to ensure safety and protection of health of its employees, contractors and visitors in all its operating sites, which include manufacturing, sales and distribution, research laboratories and offices during work and work related travel.This Policy document defines the vision, principles, aim, required actions and scope of the policy application as well as the responsibility for execution.Our Vision Our vision is to be an injury free organisation. Our MissionWe will bring safety on top of mind for all employees and will integrate it with all business processes. We will realise our Vision through an Integrated Safety Management approach, which focuses on People, Processes, Systems, Technology and Facilities, supported by demonstrated leadership and employee commitment at all levels as the prime drivers for ensuring a safe and healthy work environment.Safety PrinciplesHUL's Occupational Safety and Health Policy is based on and supported by the following eight Principles.These Principles have the same status as the Company's Code of Business Principles:
· All injuries and occupational illnesses are preventable
· All operational exposures can be safeguarded
· Safety evaluation of all business processes is vital
· Working safely is a condition of employment
· Training all employees to work safely is essential
· Management audits are a must
· Employee involvement is essential
· All deficiencies must be reported and corrected promptly Note: In order to facilitate operationalisation of the Safety Principles, a separate document has been prepared, which covers: a) Safety Principles b) Success Criteria c) Illustrative KPIThis document will form the basis for the concerned Line / Organisations in developing KPI's for their respective functions / sites.Scope of Application This section defines the scope of application of this Policy (where, when and to whom is this Policy applicable). Where does this policy apply?
· All own/leased sites – Manufacturing, Research/Innovation, Offices, Depots, Warehouses
· In-house purchased services i.e. canteen, travel desk, IT implementation etc.
· Sites of associates with HUL holding > 24% while carrying out operations of making, handling, using, transporting, selling or disposing off of our products Who does the policy apply to?
· All employees at business anywhere
· Contractors and visitors while at our own sites When does it apply?
· At work (our employees, contractors and visitors)
· Travel between home and work of our employees
· Business related travel including stay out of headquarter
· All Company organised business events i.e. training programmes, conferences, business related get-togethers, annual sports etc.Implementation Responsibility HUL Management at all levels is responsible for Policy implementation. Every site shall prepare a responsibility matrix with respect to this Policy. Such SHE responsibilities shall form an integral part of overall job responsibilities of all employees.All Unilever and HUL Standards, Rules and Procedures on Occupational Safety and Health, including those that may be specific to a site are integral to this Policy and its implementation. All employees are required to ensure strict adherence.


1) If Hindustan Unilever straddles the Indian corporate world, it is because of being single-minded in identifying itself with Indian aspirations and needs in every walk of life, for being single –minded in identifying itself it needs to have good communication system, taking into account the parameters given in the case study you are required to explain the communication environment within the Organization set up of Hindustan Unilever Ltd.

2) Based on the details given with reference to Hindustan Unilever Ltd, you are required to prepare a speech for The Chairman of Hindustan Unilever Ltd on ‘every employee needs to be an effective communicator’.

3) Prepare a diagrammatic representation of Organization structure and explain it with relevance to Formal Communication network.

4) Explain the relevance of informal communication network and how to use for the benefit of a multi product company like Hindustan Unilever Ltd.

Sunday, October 14, 2007

Assignment for MBA (Section A only)

DATE & TIME OF SUBMISSION: OCTOBER – 19th 2007; 4.30 pm

Note: Bibliography Section - compulsory.


1) You are required to write an essay on how persistence has helped ‘the communication practices & management style’ of Management Professionals / Corporate Leaders.

2) Explain following definitions of communication with suitable examples.

“Communication is the sum of all the things one person does when he wants to create understanding in the minds of another. It is a bridge of meaning. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening, and understanding.”

“Communication is the process through which two or more persons come to exchange ideas and understand among themselves.”

3) Explain the prerequisites of communication.


Module - 01




The achievement of these objectives largely depends upon the fact that human efforts are properly co-ordinated and integrated.
The working and maintaining of human relationships in organization based on the organization structure is possible through communication
Communication is a necessary element in human relationships
The more the organization grows the more complexities it have – to deal with it ommunication is required to a great extent.
“Communication is the process through which two or more persons come to exchange ideas and understand among themselves.”
There must be a receiver for communication to occur.
There must be a receiver for communication to occur.
The sender should consider the receiver both while structuring his message from a technical standpoint as well as in delivering it.
When the receiver is not considered there is either no response or wrong response
The understanding element in communication –sharing of understanding would be possible only when the person to whom the message is meant understand it in same sense in which the sender of the message want him to understand.
Communication involves something more than mere transmission of message and physical receipt thereof.

Importance of Communication in an Organization
Communication is one of the basic functions of management in any organization and its importance can hardly be overemphasized. It is a process of transmitting information, ideas, thoughts, opinions and plans between various parts of an organization.
You cannot have human relations without communication. However, good and effective communication is required not only for good human relations but also for good and successful business.
Importance of Communication

# Efficiency Functioning of the Organization.
# Quick Decision and implementation.
#Good Industrial Relations.
# Develops Managerial Skills.

# Efficiency functioning of the organization-The efficient functioning of the organization totally depends on the effective communication system. Communication helps everyone in the organization to understand his role clearly and provides a path through which an enterprise can attain the objectives of the organization.

#Quick decision and implementation-A continuous flow of information enables the executives to take decisions quickly and implement them without delay. Therefore, effective communication is a pre requisite for solving managerial problem.

#Good industrial relations-it is always desirable on the part of management to avoid disputes rather than finding solutions after they occur. In this context, communication plays a vital role. It provides reliable and accurate information and thereby prevents disputes and promotes good industrial relations in an organization.

# Develops Managerial Skills-According to modern management thinkers; communication which is a learning process helps executives to acquire more knowledge. It also facilitates executives to share the acquired knowledge with their subordinates which results in increase in the overall managerial skill of people in the organization. Thus proper communication system develops managerial skill.

You can use software’s like business writing software for writing effective business communication, which is required at various levels and for various aspects in an organization such as -
Importance of communication for manager and employee relations:
Effective communication of information and decision is an essential component for management-employee relations. The manager cannot get the work done from employees unless they are communicated effectively of what he wants to be done? He should also be sure of some basic facts such as how to communicate and what results can be expected from that communication. Most of management problems arise because of lack of effective communication. Chances of misunderstanding and misrepresentation can be minimized with proper communication system.
For motivation and employee morale:
Communication is also a basic tool for motivation, which can improve morale of the employees in an organization. Inappropriate or faulty communication among employees or between manager and his subordinates is the major cause of conflict and low morale at work. Manager should clarify to employees about what is to be done, how well they doing and what are can be done for better performance to improve their motivation. He can prepare a written statement, clearly outlining the relationship between company objectives and personal objectives and integrating the interest of the two.
For increase productivity:
With effective communication, you can maintain a good human relation in the organization and by encouraging ideas or suggestions from employees or workers and implementing them whenever possible, you can also increase production at low cost.
For employees:
It is through the communication that employees submit their work reports, comments, grievances and suggestions to their seniors or management. Organization should have effective and speedy communication policy and procedures to avoid delays, misunderstandings, confusion or distortions of facts and to establish harmony among all the concerned people and departments.
Importance of written communication:
Communication may be made through oral or written. In oral communication, listeners can make out what speakers is trying to say, but in written communication, text matter in the message is a reflection of your thinking. So, written communication or message should be clear, purposeful and concise with correct words, to avoid any misinterpretation of your message. Written communications provides a permanent record for future use and it also gives an opportunity to employees to put up their comments or suggestions in writing.
Use of business writing software for effective business communication:
So, effective communication is very important for successful working of an organization. Writing software like business writing software with grammar checker and text enrichment tool can be used for writing effective business communications.
Several myths are associated with communication. Each can be refuted.
Myth #1: As Long As People Are Talking, They Should Be Able To Understand Each Other.
Understanding occurs only when individuals attribute the same or similar meaning to the messages.
Do not assume that "talk" has resulted in understanding.
Myth #2: As Long As You Have The 'Right' Message, It Doesn't Matter How You Send it.
Be sure to send a message in a way that will generate the desired result.
Myth #3: You Can Decide To Send No Message At All.
If you send no message, you are sending the message that you don't want to talk.
Nonverbal behavior sends messages you may be unaware of.
Myth #4: More Communication Is Always A Good Thing.
More frequent communication does not guarantee success.
Sometimes more talk is not helpful.
Myth #5: Words Have Meaning.
Words have meaning only when we agree on the meaning. A word represents its referent (the object it symbolizes) only if we to that representation.
Because meanings are assigned arbitrarily, there is great room for misunderstanding.
Myth 6: Communication is a Natural Process.
Communication must be learned and practiced.
Some people are better at it than others; but everyone can improve.
How to Enhance Communication Skills
The first step in good communication is to listen to what others are saying. If you are so focused on saying your piece, you’ll miss important points and could even offend those around you. Listen to the points colleagues or friends are making. When they have finished their thought, go ahead with your own. It also helps to build relationships if you can address another’s comments in your own.
For example by saying, “I agree with Mary that we should expand our target demographic…” will be much more effective and demonstrate that you are a team player better than the more self-centered, “I think we need to…” By acknowledging that you are listening, others will pay more attention to what you say in return and respect your style of communication. Besides, being a good listen is just plain polite.

Think Ahead
If you say everything that crosses your mind exactly when you think it, it’s unlikely anyone wants to speak with you. Everyone suffers from ugly thoughts and sometimes even positive or neutral thoughts come out sounding bad if you don’t put the right amount of thought into your presentation. It’s the proverbial foot in mouth that can be avoided simply by thinking a thought before saying it.
Planning what you are about to say can go a long way in avoiding embarrassment on your part or someone else’s hurt feelings. It is also crucial when you are trying to deliver constructive criticism or negative feedback. Softening a blow with a compliment can make a hard statement much easier to swallow. Just be sure your point is clear. Stopping to think before speaking gives you time to filter your thoughts and ensure that you are sharing exactly what you mean to say.
Speak All Languages
You can’t possibly know every spoken language in the world, but some styles of language are more universal. It is important to speak with not only words, but your body, face and tone as well. If you are telling a joke, you should smile. If you are serious about a situation, your tone and body should express that.
Others will listen to your words, but they are always tuned in how you are saying those words to get a full understanding of your message. If you’re truly engaged in what you are saying, the rest should follow easily. It’s easy to see when someone is faking enthusiasm, so don’t. If you feel it, great. If not, don’t pretend. Everyone will know your real thoughts on the matter regardless.
Get to the Point
In the business place, there is little time for long rambling thoughts or stories. Eliminate most of the idle chatter in a professional context and get to the point. Stories and random thoughts are great among friends at the water cooler or lunch table, but they don’t belong in the conference room or office. Of course, you don’t need to speak only in short bursts, but a few extra sentences to introduce a thought are much more appreciated than a fifteen minute narrative.
Your message should be clear both at home and at work. If you’re simply relaxing with a few friends, think about how much more you enjoy a brief funny story than a long, slightly boring one. Keep it simple. Not only will your friends appreciate your wit, but they’ll also appreciate your not monopolizing the conversation. Plus, you’ll have the details you failed to share as fodder for a future conversation.

Written communication involves any type of interaction that makes use of the written word. It is one of the two main types of communication, along with oral/spoken communication. Written communication is very common in business situations, so it is important for small business owners and managers to develop effective written communication skills. Some of the various forms of written communication that are used internally for business operations include memos, reports, bulletins, job descriptions, employee manuals, and electronic mail. Examples of written communication avenues typically pursued with clients, vendors, and other members of the business community, meanwhile, include electronic mail, Internet Web sites, letters, proposals, telegrams, faxes, postcards, contracts, advertisements, brochures, and news releases.
Ironically, the importance of good writing skills in the business world has become more evident even as companies rely increasingly on computers and other new technologies to meet their obligations. Indeed, business experts warn that any business's positive qualities—from dedication to customer service to high-tech expertise—will be blunted to some degree if they are unable to transfer that dedication and knowledge to the printed page. "Whether you are pitching a business case or justifying a budget, the quality of your writing can determine success or failure," wrote Paula Jacobs in InfoWorld. "Writing ability is especially important in customer communication. Business proposals, status reports, customer documentation, technical support, or even e-mail replies all depend on clear written communication."
The basic process of communication begins when a fact or idea is observed by one person. That person (the sender) may decide to translate the observation into a message, and then transmit the message through some communication medium to another person (the receiver). The receiver then must interpret the message and provide feedback to the sender indicating that the message has been understood and appropriate action taken.
As Herta A. Murphy and Herbert W. Hildebrandt observed in Effective Business Communications, good communication should be complete, concise, clear, concrete, correct, considerate, and courteous. More specifically, this means that communication should: answer basic questions like who, what, when, where; be relevant and not overly wordy; focus on the receiver and his or her interests; use specific facts and figures and active verbs; use a conversational tone for readability; include examples and visual aids when needed; be tactful and good natured; and be accurate and nondiscriminatory. Unclear, inaccurate, or inconsiderate business communication can waste valuable time, alienate employees or customers, and destroy goodwill toward management or the overall business. Communications Skills - The Importance of Removing Barriers:
Problems with communication can pop-up at every stage of the communication process (which consists of sender, encoding, channel, decoding, receiver, feedback and context - see the diagram below) and have the potential to create misunderstanding and confusion.
To be an effective communicator and to get your point across without misunderstanding and confusion, your goal should be to lessen the frequency of these problems at each stage of this process with clear, concise, accurate, well-planned communications. We follow the process through below:

As the source of the message, you need to be clear about why you're communicating, and what you want to communicate. You also need to be confident that the information you're communicating is useful and accurate.

The message is the information that you want to communicate.

This is the process of transferring the information you want to communicate into a form that can be sent and correctly decoded at the other end. Your success in encoding depends partly on your ability to convey information clearly and simply, but also on your ability to anticipate and eliminate sources of confusion (for example, cultural issues, mistaken assumptions, and missing information.) A key part of this is knowing your audience: Failure to understand who you are communicating with will result in delivering messages that are misunderstood.

Messages are conveyed through channels, with verbal including face-to-face meetings, telephone and videoconferencing; and written including letters, emails, memos and reports.

Different channels have different strengths and weaknesses. For example, it's not particularly effective to give a long list of directions verbally, while you'll quickly cause problems if you criticize someone strongly by email.

Just as successful encoding is a skill, so is successful decoding (involving, for example, taking the time to read a message carefully, or listen actively to it.) Just as confusion can arise from errors in encoding, it can also arise from decoding errors. This is particularly the case if the decoder doesn't have enough knowledge to understand the message.

Your message is delivered to individual members of your audience. No doubt, you have in mind the actions or reactions you hope your message will get from this audience. Keep in mind, though, that each of these individuals enters into the communication process with ideas and feelings that will undoubtedly influence their understanding of your message, and their response. To be a successful communicator, you should consider these before delivering your message, and act appropriately.

Your audience will provide you with feedback, verbal and nonverbal reactions to your communicated message. Pay close attention to this feedback, as it is the only thing that allows you to be confident that your audience has understood your message. If you find that there has been a misunderstanding, at least you have the opportunity to send the message a second time.

The situation in which your message is delivered is the context. This may include the surrounding environment or broader culture (i.e. corporate culture, international cultures, etc.).

Removing Barriers At All These Stages
To deliver your messages effectively, you must commit to breaking down the barriers that exist in each of these stages of the communication process.

Let’s begin with the message itself. If your message is too lengthy, disorganized, or contains errors, you can expect the message to be misunderstood and misinterpreted. Use of poor verbal and body language can also confuse the message.

Barriers in context tend to stem from senders offering too much information too fast. When in doubt here, less is oftentimes more. It is best to be mindful of the demands on other people’s time, especially in today’s ultra-busy society.

Once you understand this, you need to work to understand your audience’s culture, making sure you can converse and deliver your message to people of different backgrounds and cultures within your own organization, in your country and even abroad
In their book Management: Function and Strategy, Thomas S. Bateman and Carl P. Zeithaml described several advantages and disadvantages of using written forms of communication. One advantage is that written messages do not have to be delivered on the spur of the moment; instead, they can be edited and revised several times before they are sent so that the content can be shaped to maximum effect. Another advantage is that written communication provides a permanent record of the messages that have been sent and can be saved for later study. Since they are permanent, written forms of communication also enable recipients to take more time in reviewing the message and providing appropriate feedback. For these reasons, written forms of communication are often considered more appropriate for complex business messages that include important facts and figures. Other benefits commonly associated with good writing skills include increased customer/client satisfaction; improved interorganizational efficiency; and enhanced image in the community and industry.
There are also several potential pitfalls associated with written communication, however. For instance, unlike oral communication, wherein impressions and reactions are exchanged instantaneously, the sender of written communication does not generally receive immediate feedback to his or her message. This can be a source of frustration and uncertainty in business situations in which a swift response is desired. In addition, written messages often take more time to compose, both because of their information-packed nature and the difficulty that many individuals have in composing such correspondence. Many companies, however, have taken a proactive stance in addressing the latter issue. Mindful of the large number of workers who struggle with their writing abilities, some firms have begun to offer on-site writing courses or enrolled employees in business writing workshops offered by professional training organizations, colleges, and community education programs.
Electronic mail has emerged as a highly popular business communication tool in recent years. Indeed, its capacity to convey important corporate communications swiftly and easily has transformed it into a communications workhorse for business enterprises of all sizes and orientations. But many users of e-mail technology pay little attention to basic rules of grammar and format when composing their letters, even when they are penning business correspondence addressed to clients, customers, vendors, business partners, or internal colleagues. This sloppy correspondence reflects an "astonishing" lack of professionalism, wrote Sana Reynolds in Communication World: "We seem to have been seduced by the ease and informality of the medium to produce messages that ignore the rules and conventions usually in place when producing hard copy. We send out messages with grammar, usage or spelling errors…. In the name of speed, we throw caution to the winds and forget sentence patterning, paragraphing, and other conventions that make messages intelligible, creating unattractive and impenetrable data dumps."
Given this unfortunate trend, many business experts counsel companies to install firm guidelines on tone, content, and shape of e-mail correspondence. These guidelines should make it clear that all employees are expected to adhere to the same standards of professionalism that (presumably) remain in place for traditional postal correspondence. Proper spelling and grammar and the ability to frame correspondence in suitably diplomatic language should be hallmarks of electronic mail as well as regular mail, especially if the communication is directed at a person or persons outside the company. Ten Forms of Written Communication in an Organization
Communication is a process of transmitting information between different parts of an organization. It is one of the basic functions of management in any organization. For communication with the outside world, organizations use advertising material, news releases and audio-visual aids. However, for communication within organization and with employees, different forms of communications are used such as in-house magazines, journals, reports and bulletin boards to transmit ideas, thoughts and information.
Forms of communication in an organization:
Employee handbook:
Employee handbook is given to the new employee at the time of induction or orientation program. It provides complete information of the organization with details on nature of the business, its customers, products, policies, benefits and services available to its employees. Some organizations use charts, photographs, and cartoons to make it more interesting for reading.
In-house Magazines & journals:
Organizations publish quarterly or monthly in-house magazines to keep employees updated about the latest development in the business, activities conducted in the company like social or cultural and achievements by the sales team. Management can unite with employees in an informal or direct way through these magazines. It also contains promotions, retirements, honors and awards with pictures of employees receiving award from management.
Financial reports to employees:
Financial reports published for shareholders & general public with all the technical accounting language & its terminologies, do not serve any purpose for the employees. So, some organizations publish financial reports specifically for employees with details on expenses, income, profits and distribution of income, which gives the idea about financial standing of the organization to the employees.
Information racks or display stands:
Information racks or stands are usually placed at places like front lobby, factory gate, cafeteria, shop or at a place which is most frequented by employees. These stands are used to display books dealing with wide range of topics such as help yourself, hobbies, sports, accident prevention etc.
Bulletin boards:
Bulletin boards in attractive colors & types can be used for display of clippings from newspapers, magazines, clippings on retirements, honors, marriages and other events in the lives of employees.
Museums & exhibitions:
Small museum or an exhibition can be used to display quality control ideas, old photographs of the factory, old designs and good quality products. It can create interest among the employees in their own work.
Posters: Posters are used to display topics related with health and safety, hygiene, improvement in production process, etc. Along with text matter, it should contain pictorial diagrams, charts, and photographs to explain the topic in a simple way.
Notice Boards:
Notice boards are usually placed at the factory gate or in front lobby. These are used to display notices and circulars issued by the management for administrative purposes, circulars related with hours of work, factories act and any new rules and regulations.
Suggestion system:
Some organizations use suggestion system to provide an opportunity for a working communication with the management. Employees can use this system to give positive proposals for improvement in machines, devices, techniques and procedures or to express their dissatisfaction with existing facilities or particulars.
Memo: Memos are business letters but used within an organization and only for employees. Memos are used to give information to employees such as changes in some procedures or rules, policy change or for specific purpose like request to attend a meeting. The format of the memo differs from business letter format.

Differences Between Oral and Written Communication
Most of us intuitively understand that there are differences between oral and written language. All communication includes the transfer of information from one person to another, and while the transfer of information is only the first step in the process of understanding a complex phenomenon, it is an important first step. Writing is a fairly static form of transfer. Speaking is a dynamic transfer of information. To be an effective speaker, you must exploit the dynamism of oral communication, but also learn to work within its limitations. While there is a higher level of immediacy and a lower level of retention in the spoken word, a speaker has more ability to engage the audience psychologically and to use complex forms of non-verbal communication
The written language can be significantly more precise. Written words can be chosen with greater deliberation and thought, and a written argument can be extraordinarily sophisticated, intricate, and lengthy. These attributes of writing are possible because the pace of involvement is controlled by both the writer and the reader. The writer can write and rewrite at great length, a span of time which in some cases can be measured in years. Similarly, the reader can read quickly or slowly or even stop to think about what he or she has just read. More importantly, the reader always has the option of re-reading; even if that option is not exercised, its mere possibility has an effect upon a reader's understanding of a text. The written word appeals more to a contemplative, deliberative style.
Speeches can also be precise and indeed they ought to be. But precision in oral communication comes only with a great deal of preparation and compression. Once spoken, words cannot be retracted, although one can apologize for a mistake and improvise a clarification or qualification. One can read from a written text and achieve the same degree of verbal precision as written communication. But word-for-word reading from a text is not speech-making, and in most circumstances audiences find speech-reading boring and retain very little of the information transmitted.
On the other hand, oral communication can be significantly more effective in expressing meaning to an audience. This distinction between precision and effectiveness is due to the extensive repertoire of signals available to the speaker: gestures, intonation, inflection, volume, pitch, pauses, movement, visual cues such as appearance, and a whole host of other ways to communicate meaning. A speaker has significantly more control over what the listener will hear than the writer has over what the reader will read. For these techniques to be effective, however, the speaker needs to make sure that he or she has the audience's attention--audiences do not have the luxury of re-reading the words spoken. The speaker, therefore, must become a reader of the audience.
Reading an audience is a systematic and cumulative endeavor unavailable to the writer. As one speaks, the audience provides its own visual cues about whether it is finding the argument coherent, comprehensible, or interesting. Speakers should avoid focusing on single individuals within an audience. There are always some who scrunch up their faces when they disagree with a point; others will stare out the window; a few rude (but tired) persons will fall asleep. These persons do not necessarily represent the views of the audience; much depends upon how many in the audience manifest these signals. By and large, one should take the head-nodders and the note-takers as signs that the audience is following one's argument. If these people seem to outnumber the people not paying attention, then the speech is being well-received. The single most important bit of evidence about the audience's attention, however, is eye contact. If members of the audience will look back at you when you are speaking, then you have their attention. If they look away, then your contact with the audience is probably fading.
Speeches probably cannot be sophisticated and intricate. Few audiences have the listening ability or background to work through a difficult or complex argument, and speakers should not expect them to be able to do so. Many speakers fail to appreciate the difficulties of good listening, and most speakers worry about leaving out some important part of the argument. One must be acutely aware of the tradeoff between comprehensiveness and comprehension. Trying to put too much into a speech is probably the single most frequent error made by speakers.
This desire to "say everything" stems from the distinctive limitations of speeches: after a speech, one cannot go back and correct errors or omissions, and such mistakes could potentially cripple the persuasiveness of a speech. A speaker cannot allow himself or herself to fall into this mentality. At the outset, a speaker must define an argument sharply and narrowly and must focus on only that argument. There are certainly implications of an argument that are important but cannot be developed within the speech. These aspects should be clearly acknowledged by the speaker, but deferred to a question-and-answer period, a future speech, or a reference to a work that the audience can follow-up on its own. Speakers must exercise tight and disciplined control over content.
As a rule of thumb, the audience will remember about one-half of what was said in a twenty-minute talk. After twenty-minutes, recall drops off precipitously. Oral arguments should therefore be parsed down as much as possible. There are very few circumstances in which an audience will recall a great deal of the information in a speech longer than twenty minutes. Most evidence suggests that audience recall declines precipitously after 16 and one-helf minutes.
Oral communication uses words with fewer syllables than the written language, the sentences are shorter, and self-referencing pronouns such as I are common. Oral communication also allows incomplete sentences if delivered properly, and many sentences will begin with "and," "but," and "except."
The upshot of these differences is that one should not think about speeches as oral presentations of a written text. Speeches are genuinely different from written prose, and one should not use the logic of writing as a basis for writing a speech.